Grenville Byford

Clamor of Civilizations

Infidels is the history of three Muslim-Christian encounters: The first is the 8th-century Muslim conquest of Christian southern Spain from its Visigothic kings, and its subsequent rise to riches as “Al-Andalus.” Cordoba, its greatest city, was known to 11th-century Europeans as “the jewel of the world,” an almost unrivaled center of learning and culture. Many… Read more »

Meanwhile in Ankara

The United States leaned hard on the Turks to allow 40,000 to 60,000 American troops onto Turkish soil to push into Iraq from the North. And the new government did ultimately put the necessary but highly unpopular legislation before Turkey’s parliament, which balked. Despite public words to the effect that they respected Turkish democracy, the… Read more »