In November 1947, shortly after the United Nations voted for partition of the Holy Land into separate Arab and Jewish states, Chaim Weizmann was cited by the New York Times as saying that “the most important work now was to build Palestine.”
What? To build Palestine? Yes, in 1947 the word “Palestinian” –if it meant anything at all — referred to Jews living in Palestine. The Palestine Post (now the Jerusalem Post) was the Jewish English-language newspaper. The Palestine Orchestra (now the Israel Philharmonic) was a Jewish orchestra, filled to overflowing with Holocaust survivors. The United Palestine Appeal, an American charity, raised money to resettle homeless Jews from Europe in Palestine — one of the things Arabs objected to the most.
Arabs living in the territory of Palestine were called “Arabs” — or, very occasionally, “Palestinian Arabs.” This was in keeping with the philosophy promoted by Egypt’s leader, Gamal Abdel Nasser, among others, and known as pan-Arabism. It held that all places where Arabs ruled were part of one big Arab nation. Nasser, who more or less ran the joint before the rise of the oil powers, wasn’t interested in adding new sovereign nations to the map.
This history is probably what Newt Gingrich had in mind when he commented last week that the Palestinians are “an invented people.”
For two decades before they lost the Six-Day War in 1967, Arabs controlled the entire West Bank, the Gaza Strip and half of Jerusalem. They could have established a Palestinian state anytime they wanted. They never tried. The famous UN Resolution 242, which ended the Six-Day War, makes no reference to Palestinians, but just refers to “refugees.”
In short, Newt’s right, up to a point. Until the 1970s, Palestinian nationalism was almost unheard-of. It had to be “invented” after 1967. But it was invented, and now it can’t be uninvented. Today, acknowledging the Palestinians’ right, at least in theory, to a state of their own is the price of admission to any serious discussion of the Middle East. Even Israel’s right-wing prime minister, Benjamin Netanyahu, feels obliged to give it lip service.
It doesn’t really matter that Palestinian nationalism is a recent confection. People who want a state should have a state. That seems to be the rule. In an era when the former Soviet Union continues to break apart like a cookie, with each crumb claiming sovereignty over a piece of territory, and the claimed territories often overlapping, it’s hard to argue for a higher standard.
In the 1980s and 1990s I worked at the New Republic, a fervently pro-Zionist publication. Many’s the night I worked late editing articles I wasn’t sure I agreed with, offering yet one more reason why a Palestinian state was unthinkable. These days the position of Jews in the U.S. and in Israel seems to be something like a resigned shrug. The Palestinians want a state? Two chunks of unconnected territory, one of them controlled by religious maniacs prone to violence, the other ruled by the political heirs of Yasser Arafat? OK, let them have a state, if we can settle other issues like borders and refugees. See how they like it.
Newt also isn’t completely off the wall in describing the situation as a struggle “between a civilian democracy that obeys the rule of law and a group of terrorists that are firing missiles every day.” If he had thought a bit before opening his trap, Gingrich might have wanted to distinguish between the Palestinian Authority, which rules in the West Bank, and Hamas, which controls Gaza.
Hamas and Fatah
Hamas is the one firing missiles. But even regarding the Palestinian Authority, it’s incredible that all it has taken for the Palestine Liberation Organization (which conducted the slaughter at the Munich Olympics, among other atrocities) to become an acceptable future Palestinian government is to have found a leader who wears a suit and tie and knows how to shave. Palestine Authority President Mahmoud Abbas is considered the grown-up, the trustworthy negotiating partner, the one you complain to when Hamas misbehaves.
You can get in great trouble if you say that Israel also has its terrorist past. And to be sure there are big differences. But there are also similarities. If you’ve perused the New York Times coverage of the Middle East in the weeks before and after the 1947 UN vote (hey, a guy’s got to have a hobby), you’ll see references to the Irgun and the Stern Gang, two Jewish guerrilla groups, as “Jewish terrorists.” The label was considered obvious and beyond controversy.
Gingrich said that Palestine had to be invented, and this is true. It is also true of Israel, which didn’t even have a name as it declared its independence in May 1948. President Harry Truman’s typewritten message recognizing the new nation has “Jewish state” crossed out and “State of Israel” scrawled in what looks like pencil.
Modern Jewish nationalism only goes back to 1896 when Theodore Herzl published his book, “Der Judenstaat” (“The Jewish State”), which put the question back in the public debate for the first time in centuries. From 1896 to 1948 is 52 years. That’s how long it took for the Jewish state to go from an idea to a reality. Even if Palestinian nationalism started as late as 1967, 52 years later would be 2019. Eight years from now. I doubt it will take that long.